Three years of the hottest blue sky defense

2022-08-06
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Three years' hard work in the blue sky defense battle

green development is an important connotation of high-quality development. As one of the three key battles determined by the central government, pollution prevention and control has been carried out in an all-round way, and its results will have a far-reaching impact on the future. The battle against pollution is aimed at the atmosphere, water and soil. Behind it, it involves deep-seated reforms in the industrial structure, energy structure and transportation structure. It is indeed a big battle for local governments. This topic selects three key areas of the blue sky Defense War: Beijing Tianjin Hebei and its surrounding areas, the Yangtze River Delta and the Fen Wei plain, presenting the exploration of local governments to promote green economic transformation and various challenges faced in this process

introduction

compared with the first stage of five years, the blue sky defense war has only three years for "2+26" transmission channel cities and their six provinces (cities, districts)

for Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, the completion of the first phase of the "ten atmosphere" is not the end, but the beginning of a new phase

according to the three-year action plan for winning the blue sky Defense War (hereinafter referred to as the three-year action plan) issued by the State Council, from this year to 2020, Beijing Tianjin Hebei and its surrounding areas will remain the key areas for air pollution prevention and control

compared with the first stage of five years, the blue sky defense war has only three years for "2+26" transmission channel cities and their six provinces (cities, districts)

many experts interviewed by the 21st Century Business Herald believe that it is not difficult to achieve the 2020 target because of their early management experience and the more sophisticated haze control measures formulated in the three-year action plan

the three-year action plan proposes that by 2020, the total emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides will be reduced by more than 15% respectively compared with 2015; The concentration of PM2.5 in cities at prefecture level and above that fail to meet the standard has decreased by more than 18% compared with 2015, the ratio of days with excellent air quality in cities at prefecture level and above has reached 80%, and the ratio of days with severe pollution and above has decreased by more than 25% compared with 2015

Beijing is close to achieving this goal and has put forward more stringent goals. The opinions on Comprehensively Strengthening Ecological and environmental protection and firmly fighting the tough battle of pollution prevention and control in Beijing put forward that nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other pollutants were reduced by more than 30% compared with 2015

however, "not difficult" does not mean that there is no challenge. Especially for Hebei, Henan, Shandong and other provinces, the industrial structure adjustment and energy structure adjustment in the three-year action plan, but the targets in the detection of soft copper or annealed copper rods, are obstacles that need to be overcome

upgrading of regional prevention and control cooperation

the new stage means new changes. The first major change is the upgrading of the Beijing Tianjin Hebei and surrounding air pollution prevention and control cooperation group (hereinafter referred to as "the cooperation group")

at the end of 2013, six provinces, autonomous regions and cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Shandong, and seven ministries and commissions including the national development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of finance, the Ministry of environmental protection and the Ministry of industry and information technology jointly established the Beijing Tianjin Hebei and surrounding air pollution prevention and control cooperation group. Guojinlong, the then Secretary of the Beijing Municipal Party committee, served as the group leader, and the former principal of the Ministry of environmental protection and the governments of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei served as the Deputy group leader. The office of the coordination group was located in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau

in may 2015, with the participation of Henan Province and the Ministry of communications, the member units of the coordination group expanded to eight central ministries and commissions and seven provinces, autonomous regions and cities. Subsequently, the Beijing Tianjin Hebei air pollution prevention and control core area was established, and the "2+4" cooperation mechanism was formed between Beijing and Tianjin and Langfang, Baoding, Tangshan and Cangzhou, Hebei. The Ministry of environmental protection set up a new "2+26" transmission channel city in 2017

although the cooperation group has carried out cooperation in the fields of heavy air pollution early warning consultation, regional environmental linkage law enforcement, standards, policies, funds and so on, the coordination mechanism between regions still needs to be improved due to the level of this group

On July 20, Dr. zhouweiduo from the Institute of urban development and environment of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences told the 21st Century Business Herald that Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei have different demands for governance, and industrial pollution is not the focus for Beijing, but the focus for Hebei. If the industrial pollution control policies of the three places are consistent, the same policies will have different impacts on Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, such as different impacts on the economy. There are few industrial enterprises in Beijing, and the impact of shutdown or even industrial transformation on the overall economy is significantly less than that of Hebei Province

"it is not convenient and appropriate for one of them to coordinate the collaboration team." Zhuang Guiyang, a researcher of the Institute of urban development and environment of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, studied the collaborative governance mechanism of smog in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei in, and suggested that the relevant central departments should directly take the lead to improve the level of the air pollution prevention and control collaborative group in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, and establish a joint monitoring and law enforcement mechanism across regions and other departments by setting up an office in the Ministry of environmental protection, so as to achieve unified supervision and law enforcement, And can strengthen information exchange and sharing

on July 11, the State Council Office issued a notice to adjust the coordination group into a leading group for the prevention and control of air pollution in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, with Vice Premier Han Zheng as the leader, and the main principals of the Ministry of ecological environment and the governments of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei as the deputy leaders, and the Ministry of public security as a new member of the group. The office of the leading group is located in the Ministry of ecological environment, and zhaoyingmin, Vice Minister of the Ministry of ecological environment, is the director of the office

in this regard, Zhuang Guiyang said that it is conducive to better coordinating the interests of all parties from the overall level and surpassing the leaders of all provinces and departments. The regional cooperation between Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei is coordinated by the State Council

wushunze, director of the environment and economic policy research center of the Ministry of ecological environment, commented that this adjustment is conducive to improving the cooperation among various subjects, improving the overall efficiency of regional ecological environment protection, and promoting pollution prevention and control

refinement of pollution control

in terms of control measures, the next three years will basically follow the practices of the past five years, but also put forward some new requirements

"in the past few years, some haze control measures in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas have been somewhat extensive. In the next three years, more sophisticated measures will be taken to control haze." Said maoxianqiang, a professor at the school of environment, Beijing Normal University

he said that on the one hand, the central environmental protection inspectors are putting pressure on local governments, and on the other hand, local governments are also using special funds to hire or consult professional teams to help improve their atmospheric management capabilities

each place will have different governance priorities in the next three years. Beijing is changing from engineering emission reduction to management emission reduction. In the future, hardware modules will be used as much as possible in the system design. In three years, it will focus on key prevention and control areas such as diesel trucks, dust, and the automatic stop of heating after the volatile temperature reaches the upper limit. Within three years, the city's nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds will be reduced by 20%, air pollutants in the transportation sector will be reduced by 30%, and the amount of dust in each district will be reduced by 30%

for Hebei, the focus is on industrial pollution, especially the "two high" industries such as steel. Whether the rare value can be displayed in the process of re experiment according to the 21 applications According to the Century Business Herald, the removal of production capacity and the environmental protection regulatory policy have made Hebei steel enterprises adjust the production rhythm, and the month has become the peak of supply and demand. This year, the price per ton of steel has been at a high level of more than 1000 yuan, and the crude steel output has repeatedly hit record highs

"the production and demand in the heating season are limited, and it is expected that the intensity will be greater this year, so the steel mills will increase production in June." A person close to the iron and steel industry in Hebei said

liuxinwei, steel industry analyst at Zhuo Chuang information, also told the 21st Century Business Herald: "to win the blue sky defense war, more regions and scales will be involved, and the impact will be greater than last year. Last year, the production capacity will be affected, and this year, the output will be affected."

Hebei is also aware of the difficulty of strictly controlling the production capacity of "two high" industries. On the second day after the three-year action plan was published, Hebei Province held a working conference on promoting de capacity, structural adjustment and energy conversion, and issued the de capacity work plan for the iron and steel industry and the de capacity work plan for key industries

within three years, Hebei will reduce its steel-making capacity by about 40million tons, 30million tons of coal, 23million weight boxes of flat glass, 5million tons of cement, 10million tons of coke and 1.5 million kw of thermal power. Three of the 11 steel "zombie enterprises" that have not yet been cleared will be cleared by the end of this year. The "zombie enterprises" of coal, cement and flat glass will strive to be cleared next year. By 2020, Baoding, Zhangjiakou and Langfang will all withdraw from steel production, and Chengde and Qinhuangdao will withdraw about 50% of their steel production capacity; Chengde, Zhangjiakou, Baoding, Qinhuangdao and other cities basically have no coal mines

meet the challenge of tackling air pollution in autumn and winter

the sword of "Damocles" hanging over Shandong is the target of total coal consumption. According to the three-year action plan, the total coal consumption of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces (cities) is 10% lower than that of 2015

"it is difficult for Shandong to complete this." An expert from Shandong Province told the 21st Century Business Herald that it was difficult for Shandong to achieve the coal control goal in 2017, which had been increasing in the first four years. In 2017, under the pressure of the central environmental protection supervisor, it reduced 27.06 million tons at one go, and only then completed the five-year task

"in 2017, Shandong's total annual coal consumption decreased since the reform and opening up for the first time." Zhouyong, deputy director of Shandong Institute of strategic development of science and technology, told 21st Century Business Herald. Compared with other provinces in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, the 21st century economic report found that the peak of coal consumption in Shandong arrived 3 years late

according to the above experts, the further reduction of 14million tons in the next three years seems not a big problem, but in fact, the potential of coal reduction is already very small. There is also the possibility of the rebound of bulk coal after the end of the subsidy policy of replacing coal with gas and electricity. "But taking administrative measures to complete the task will not be a problem." The expert added

Zhou Yong said that the main idea of Shandong's energy work at present and in the future is to realize that the installed capacity of new and renewable energy power generation accounts for 30%, the capacity of foreign power to Shandong accounts for 30%, the coal output and coal power are controlled at 100million tons and 100million kilowatts respectively, and to supplement the two short boards of peak load regulation and natural gas supply guarantee

the 28 cities in the 6 provinces (cities, districts) are about to face a more rigorous action plan for comprehensive air pollution control in autumn and winter. Zhaoyingmin, Vice Minister of the Ministry of ecological environment, disclosed on July 10 that this year's action plan will strengthen the production regulation of industrial enterprises in autumn and winter, implement staggered peak production for enterprises in key industries, decompose tasks and measures to each city, coordinate and deploy national environmental law enforcement forces, implement cross enforcement and resident supervision in different places, and ensure that all measures of the plan are in place

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