Three types of technological innovation

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Cheng Siwei: also talk about three types of technological innovation editor's note: on the afternoon of January 14, Cheng Siwei, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, came to Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics to interpret the report of the Seventeenth National Congress with the theme of "improving the ability of independent innovation and building an innovative country". Guozhi excerpted some wonderful contents of Mr. Cheng Siwei's speech from Xinhua for readers

now there are many ways to mention innovation, including knowledge innovation and theoretical innovation. In my personal opinion, there may be three kinds of innovation from the perspective of the definition of innovation itself. It is technological innovation, management innovation and system innovation

when you talk about theoretical innovation, of course, it can also be said, but it is not the introduction of a theory, but the invention of a theory, and this theory needs to cause changes. The introduction of a theory alone cannot cause objective changes, nor can it. There may be a way to judge how the theory of judgment causes changes. The same is true of knowledge innovation. I think that the main thing about knowledge is to find it, because knowledge is an objective law, or we don't know it. You can find out the objective laws of cognition, which may not be completely consistent with the original definition of innovation. Of course, now some speeches and statements are also established, and some of these ideas have entered the central documents. But as a scholar, I think from the definition of innovation itself, I'm afraid the main types are these three types

one type is the familiar technological innovation. Technological innovation is what Schumpeter said at that time, which is the process of introducing a new product or process into the market for plastic coated parts or new services to realize its commercial value. Management innovation refers to the process of introducing a new idea, new method, electromagnetic shielding materials and solutions: components made of Ultramid polyamide (PA) and elastolit polyurethane (PU) can realize new means of electromagnetic shielding performance, or new organizational forms into the management of enterprises or countries, and achieve corresponding results. Institutional innovation refers to the process of introducing a new relationship, new system or new mechanism into human social and economic activities and promoting social and economic development

these three innovations were elaborated in detail when I talked about independent innovation and China's modernization on CCTV. Today, due to time constraints, I will also give you a general explanation. Now we talk about technological innovation. Just now we said that technological innovation is the process of introducing a new product, new process or new service into the market and realizing its commercial value. Generally speaking, this kind of innovation has three types: the first type is called "follow innovation". Now we have some references to introduce, absorb, digest and then innovate. Of course, this word is a little longer, but I always think this kind of innovation can be called "follow innovation"

what is the so-called "follow innovation"? It is to make some necessary expansion or changes on the basis of others, so as to develop some new things. For example, CDMA, as you know, the first generation is analog, the second generation is GSM, the second and a half generation is CDMA, and the third generation is 3G, which is being launched now. CDMA was originally reported by the United States and Europe. If you go to South Korea to see it, there is no GSM in South Korea, but it is all CDMA, so you can't take it to South Korea. It introduces American technology, but on the basis of introducing American technology, it has done a lot of research work on the periphery of the technology, so it has also formed a technology with its own intellectual property rights. This is a kind of follow-up innovation. Although its core technology is still American, it has surpassed the United States in some aspects. This kind of innovation is of great significance. Although South Korea's core technology is still American, its CDMA technology has its own unique characteristics and certain progressiveness due to the establishment of peripheral patented technology

we can see many examples. For example, we introduce a technology, develop and create on the basis of this technology, which makes this technology a step higher than the original one. So we say that digestion, absorption, introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation also belong to the category of "follow innovation"

the second type of innovation is called "integrated innovation". The so-called integrated innovation refers to combining existing technologies to create a new product or technology, or introducing mature technologies in other fields into another field, so that it can create new changes. There are many examples of this in our daily life. I will only give you an example, that is, the copier. Before the creation of the copier, it can be said that there were all single technologies, because the copier is these technologies, but combining it to become a copier is the credit of the creation of the copier company

the last type of technological innovation is "original innovation". "Original innovation" refers to starting with an invention, then making the initial prototype through the invention, and then becoming a new product or a new technology through continuous improvement and maturity. Original innovation is certainly the most difficult, but it is also the most valuable. Because original innovation can be said to be an invention, it must have its own independent intellectual property rights, and it must be at the forefront of technology. If others want to surpass it, it may take a lot of effort

however, I frankly say that "original innovation" is not easy. Now we have a reference to original innovation, which is called "completely independent intellectual property rights". This formulation is right by definition, but on the other hand, to be honest, it is not so easy to think of "completely independent intellectual property rights". Because the development of science and technology is always based on our predecessors. Secondly, due to the rise of intellectual property protection, many companies have adopted a patent strategy. He has expanded the scope of his patent applications as much as possible to prevent others from infringing his intellectual property rights. So in this case, if we want to develop something that requires completely independent intellectual property rights, it will be very difficult. So now in fact, many innovations belong to the exchange and cooperation of intellectual property rights. That is to say, it is possible that you have a technology with dozens of patents, some of which may be owned by others and some of which are owned by you. Through negotiation between both parties, I use your patent and you use my patent. In this way, we have our own technology with independent intellectual property rights, but this intellectual property right is not 100%

therefore, some of our media always publicize completely independent intellectual property rights. I don't think it is very accurate in terms of scientific concept, and there is no need to pursue completely independent intellectual property rights. As long as the key technologies are in our own hands, and other marginal technologies are not necessary to be done by ourselves, I can introduce them. Now, knowledge integration has become a common trend. Like a real shipbuilding company now, it is likely that there is no ship or dock. He has received the order, and he can invite the best design. For example, he invites German design, processing and manufacturing, may find Chinese shipyards to manufacture, and may find Italy to decorate the interior. He does not necessarily have this technology himself, but he integrates it to form a product. This product is neither German, nor Chinese, nor Italian, but a new product

so we say that most of the current innovations are still "follow innovation" and "integrated innovation". "Original innovation" should be paid attention to, but "original innovation" can be said to take a long time, and the risk is quite large. We can only have limited goals. In some key areas, others will not give you, and you can't buy them to carry out "original innovation"

technical innovation simply conclusion to sum up, the mechanical closed fatigue life test machine changes the transmission ratio of the transmission side by turning off the transmission equipment, so that it is different from the experimental side. There are only three types

note: the title of the article is added by the editor. (end)

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